Cast steel is generally devided in three basic areas:
Beside iron and a minimal share of other elements, carbon is the most important alloying element of this material. Its content amounts to 0,1% up to 0,7% and significantly influences the material properties. This influence on its content can be seen from the iron-carbon diagram.
Using more or less carbon as the only method to adjust the material properties, does not make sense. Too much carbon is just as bad as too little carbon share. To optimise the mechanical properties as suitable as possible, further elements are used as alloyings. Those elements like chrome, nickel, molybdenum or vanadium are added with a miximum share of 5%. If this maximum limit is exceeded, the steel is no longer low,- but high-alloyed.
High-alloyed steels are characterised by a share of alloying elements higher than 5%.Their properties are extremely optimised and adjusted for a special use. There can be destinctive properties like: heat-, scale-, corrosion- or acid-resistance.
The following list shows the most important advantages of castings in direct comparison with other manufacturing processes and materials:
Source: bdguss Heft "Stahlguss", Mai 2011