High- and low alloyed cast steel

Castings in different materials

Cast steel is generally devided in three basic areas:

unalloyed steel:

Beside iron and a minimal share of other elements, carbon is the most important alloying element of this material. Its content amounts to 0,1% up to 0,7% and significantly influences the material properties. This influence on its content can be seen from the iron-carbon diagram.

low-alloyed steel:

Using more or less carbon as the only method to adjust the material properties, does not make sense. Too much carbon is just as bad as too little carbon share. To optimise the mechanical properties as suitable as possible, further elements are used as alloyings. Those elements like chrome, nickel, molybdenum or vanadium are added with a miximum share of 5%. If this maximum limit is exceeded, the steel is no longer low,- but high-alloyed.

high- alloyed steel:

High-alloyed steels are characterised by a share of alloying elements higher than 5%.Their properties are extremely optimised and adjusted for a special use. There can be destinctive properties like: heat-, scale-, corrosion- or acid-resistance.

Advantages of castings

The following list shows the most important advantages of castings in direct comparison with other manufacturing processes and materials:

  • The wide range of various materials offers the opportunty to choose an optimal material for the corresponding application. Especially the material properties regarding to strength, wear-resistance, corrosion resistance and operating temperature, can be defined as required.
  • Castings enable freedom of geometric design, so the shape can be developed as suitable as needed for each application.
  • The castings´ properties regarding size and wall thickness enable nearly unlimited use.
  • Using heat treatment processes, the mechanical properties are adjustable all over the whole casting and independent of the geometric shape.
  • The flexibility in choosing materials and the freedom of geometric design lead to cost-efficient solutions.
  • Castings have a high quality by using professional manufacturing processes.
  • Because of excellent weldability, cast steel is particularly suitable as construction material for various fields of application.

Source: bdguss Heft "Stahlguss", Mai 2011